Just about to head down to the SES San Jose conference area but left 3$ on my bed for the maid. I remember the first time I found out about tipping maids…. back 4 years ago I kind of went nuts at my first conference scoring all the free shirts I could and had them all over the floor of my hotel room.

When I got back to my hotel room later that night I noticed that all the shirts were super nicely folded on the dresser with a note that said thanks! Then I noticed the 40$ or so I had left on the bed was gone. A friend at the conference told me that you are supposed to tip the maid by leaving money on the bed and she no doubt had thought thats why I left 40$ on my bed.

Anyway… Curious how do you tip your hotel maid if you do at all? I used to leave like 5-10$ when I left but then I thought perhaps the same person does not clean the room every day so then I started leaving 3$ (sometimes 5 if I do not have any 1’s).

So what do you do?

By Jeremy Schoemaker

Jeremy "ShoeMoney" Schoemaker is the founder & CEO of ShoeMoney Media Group, and to date has sold 6 companies and done over 10 million in affiliate revenue. In 2013 Jeremy released his #1 International Best selling Autobiography titled "Nothing's Changed But My Change" - The ShoeMoney Story. You can read more about Jeremy on his wikipedia page here.

190 thoughts on “What Do You Tip Your Hotel Maid?”
  1. Personally, I don’t tip fast food people at all – regardless. That’s their job.

    Maids I feel for as it is truly a hard job. It could make their day and give you piece of mind that they’re not gonna do anything to your stuff lol.

    $5/10 max I would say personally.

  2. I generally leave a 1$ bill under each of my 2 pillows on the bed that I use during my stay – then a 5 -10$ tip when I check out… It also depends on service, last place I stayed there was a very rude housekeeper that didn’t get squat! Some go out of their way to help… and they get more… I’ve also found if your a good tipper, your less likely to have your stuff gone through and/or stolen while you’re out. .02 db

  3. I know they have a hard job, I worked in a hotel for a while. Even for $5 a room, if they do 20 rooms, that’s $100. Wow.

    I need a new job. No job I’ve ever held involved tips, so in many ways I don’t get it. I get paid for the work I do by the company, and don’t expect the customers to individually supplement my wages.

    Although, overall it may be more of a “pay for performance” system where if you do a lousy job, you don’t get paid as much.

  4. Yep $3-5 is fine. I couldn’t tip any less than that without feeling embarrassed. I remember when we went to Egypt for our holiday, everyone seemed to think a good tip was a £1 coin ($2), so carried round bag of them. It must be in one of the guidebooks or something.

    The reality was they thought £1 was pretty cheap. They also had the added hassle of trying to get these changed into notes, as nowhere would exchange all these coins. The managers had told them to smile and be very thankful when guests did this even though it was a complete PITA for them 🙂

  5. In Dubai, I tipped the chap who brought my bag up to the room way too much. Didn’t have any smaller notes. Reading about average tipping rates later on, I discovered that I’d given him 10x the norm.

    Bet he was a happy camper that day.

  6. I haven’t really tipped maids, but I probably should. The hotel I stay at when I’m in Palo Alto – The Creekside In – has excellent staff. The room is always clean, linens and soap stocked, and 2 bottles of complimentary water instead of that $3 – $5 a bottle water. However since the room is expensive, not for the area but in general, I just figure it’s included with the expense. However I doubt they get paid more just because the room costs more.

    When I went on a vacation with my wife a few of years ago, we went to a fancy hotel. Since it was the first time I had gone to a 4/5 start hotel, this was before I was traveling a lot, I looked online for a tipping guide. I can’t find it now. Most of the guides say $1 – $5 a night depending on the quality of the service, your mess, and the quality of the hotel. I love coming into a nice clean room and appreciate the staff for making it so. I’ll have to start tipping next time to show my appreciation.

    I bet when that maid saw $40 she assumed it was a nice tip because of your shirts. Sure sounds like she earned it though.

  7. If in a country where they use a different currency I just leave all the money that is too small to be re-exchanged

  8. I once left about $100 for tips. I was renting a beach house for just over a week and it was a mess! So we each put in some money for the two maids that had to clean the entire thing.

  9. I usually leave $5 per day as long as they do a good job on the first day. If I ask for something special, I will sometimes leave more.

    I also always tip the bell hops well so that they take care of my bags.

  10. If it’s a 1 night stay I don’t usually tip. If I’m staying someplace for several days, I tip $5 per day, especially if they do a great job!

  11. My grandma used to be a maid, and it really made her day when she was left a tip. Most people don’t bother or forget… usually it was the most messy ones that didn’t tip.

    $2-$5 should be the norm (per day). And yes it should be tipped daily because different maids will be there on different days.

    1. I work as a maid at a hotel and am rarely given a tip. I know I do a good job of cleaning their rooms. My guests are regulars and I was told they were told they didn’t have to tip. Is this common in hotels? Am I doing something wrong? Also if a guest “leaves a tip at checkout” who gets it the front desk who DOES NOT clean the room? or do they leave it in the room?

  12. a few bucks… but usually under a pillow or some other “hidden” place, never leave it on the table. One time I noticed that a few people checked out and one girl ran into the rooms before the other one started to clean. After that I just leave the tips in some place where only the maid who would clean the room see it. Bed, recycle bin, bathroom, etc.

  13. Well, personally I tip considering two things:

    1. The job they’re doing….
    2. The country I’m in…

    2. Might not be relevant for some ppl, but it is to me…not that I want to go out on the cheap, but I think it’s unnecessary to tip someone 10$ if their monthly salary is like 60$…it just doesn’t make sense…(depending on your own country that would be like tipping a huge amount, e.g. like tipping 250$, and you wouldn’t do that either)…that being said, I tip generously and yes I’ve tipped 10$/day although their monthly salary is only 60$…that’s because they did a really great job and I enjoyed seeing them with a huge smile on their face 🙂

  14. I leave instructions and a few jars with different money values.

    Jar 1: Take $8 if you make the sheets extra fluffy.
    Jar 2: Take $9 if you make the sheets extra fluffy and and the pillows extra fluffy.
    This is proper etiquette and the way it was done in the old days.

  15. man I tip everybody that is doing a service for me. I used to wait tables and I know that despite what everyone thinks, not everyone tips. If a person knows they are not coming back to a place or no one is looking, they will be as cheap as possible – most of the time. I try to be one of those people that appreciates good service and votes with his wallet.

  16. I would give her a crash course on how to blog about being maid and tell her to push affiliates to make some serious $$$….

    Just kidding….I would say for the weekend I would tip $5 per day, unless there is something extra nice they did or helped out in some way that isn’t normal of a maid.

    I think you tipped just fine.

  17. I hate the concept of tipping. If someone really does a great job I have no problems tipping.

    Companies, please pay your workers right, even if that mean raise prices.

  18. For restaurants I generally tip 20%, because it’s just easier for me to calculate (10% of bill x 2, round up to next dollar). I also know most wait staff are not even making minimum wage before tips.

    For hotels it varies, and I hate to admit I generally don’t unless it’s a long stay. I also think it should probably vary as to where. $3-$5 might seem cheap if you’re paying $300+ per night.

  19. I also think it should be said that you should spread the wealth when you can. $5 may not seem like much to you, but could make a huge difference to the employee, especially if everyone tipped.

  20. I usually leave 10% of the nights bill when in US but in the UK I don’t tip as the staff usually seem to care a lot less and just do the necessary work to get paid.

  21. I usually leave $10/day because I think of it this way: If I can rent a room for a 100-something a night or whatever, whats another 10 bucks to support a hard working person!

  22. I also had another thought: We give a nice tip to the porter for taking our bags to the room, so why not tip the person that is actually keeping your room in order day to day, although sometimes the maid might be different day to day like Shoe said.

    So those of you that don’t tip I think you should tip the maid! Even if you don’t tip big, a tip still counts. In the end it adds up.

  23. Jeremy, I generally leave $5.00~$10.00 based on the length of stay. Maids are very effecient when it comes to items left on the floor, I found my shoes cleaned and polished one afternoon! Hope to see you at SES on tuesday! Respectfully, Nicholas

  24. $3/day rounded up to the next bill. I leave it the last day usually under the “cleaned by xxx” card. Absent the card, I just leave it on the table. Not sure if the $$$ is appropriate but that’s what my folks always did.

  25. Being a Hotel Manager I can speak a little from both sides. It depends on the type of chain, economy, business, or resort, also your length of stay 1-2 days to 3+. Also this depends on how much linen you use how often you have the beds changed and if you have any special requests.

    If you able to stay long enough for them to do things you like that are out of the routine or if you leave an extra large mess Id live $3-5. Now if your in a resort level hotel I would start at $5, but for most economy/business chains even some of the nicer ones most of these carry enough house keepers to not over load them. Back to the $3-5 per room. I try to tip them the same way I would a pizza delivery driver. If everything is clean and in place and I am taken care of special request wise generally I just leave $5 a day.

    It also seems that the housekeepers remember everyone when they come back at $5 a day tipping, this can only be good as you will always have a clean room!

  26. Talking about services, its always the little things that matters most. I was in boston last week attending affiliate summit, and stayed at Nine Zero, they day I arrived I totally forgot my tooth paste and it was 3 am. I called the front desk and asked if they could get me some tooth paste, they actually sent someone out at 3am and got me what I wanted.

    Then right before I left, I totally forgot to pack some of my cloths that was in the closet, they actually packed and shipped it overnight, my cloths arrived home before me LOL.

    So yes if I make a mess in my room ( usually partying too much after networking events) I leave 40 to 50 on the night stand with a note thanking in advance.

    Otherwise just few bucks, just to cheer them up

  27. DO NOT TIP YOUR MAID!!! You are undermining the wages of working staff when you tip. As soon as an employer can say that significant monies are coming through tips they will try to justify a wage drop to the minimum wage for employees who earn tips. In case you don’t know, it’s much lower than normal minimum wage. And tips come up short compared to paid wages. Employees inevitably lose out on social security contributions as well as a range of other benefits because this income is not properly reported by the employer.

    So all the big spenders here need to think twice about being pressured into tipping in workers who do not historically earn tips. You are relieving employers of responsibility and causing long term erosion of wages. Yes a few in every industry make good money with tips, but as a whole… Tipping destroys wages and frees employers of responsibility. Most restaurant workers can’t afford gas and it’s worse now than it was 15 years ago when it was my job.

    Maids have not depended on tips historically. Do not make this yet another industry dependent upon the kindness of strangers rather than the responsibilities of employers.

    1. I have to say it!! you a big asshole Im a housekeeper we do a very hard job.. Is very sad when you have a person for a hole week gave them an excelent service and at the end they leave and nothing to apreciate our hard work .. blah blah blah!

  28. Americans loves to give tips… i heard the waiter and waitress will serve you badly if tips are not given. Tips are generally good, but too much is simply not healthy. coz next time the maid might treat those that doesn’t subscribe to the ‘tipping’ idea badly.

  29. I usually leave a few dollar tip for a one day stay or up to 5 or 10 per day for longer stays in nice hotels where my stays are usually comped.

  30. I worked in maintenance at a hotel in Branson, Mo. At the time I made 10.00 per hour. The girls that cleaned the rooms made less then that. And to tell you the truth they worked a lot harder then the maintenance staff did.

    I don’t know what the rule of thumb is for tipping but nowadays I always tip 5.00 per day. Because the girls may not always clean the same room or may be off that day. That way all of the girls are covered.

    It’s better to play it safe. Plus if you tip they won’t dig through your stuff. LOL


  31. I typically tip VERY reluctantly $5.

    I can’t tell you how insane tipping maids drives me, I pay damn good money to sleep at the hotel, and now I have to pay someones salary because the hotel is so greedy they want to let us do their job.

    Overall America is tip crazy, everyone wants a tip for doing their freaking job. Other things that really bug the ship out of me in regards to people wanting tips.

    Taxi Drivers, I’m paying $4 a mile, wtf do I need to tip you!
    Drinks, I buy a $4-5 drink and I have to pay someone $1 to give it to me?
    Meals, you pay $100 to go out with some friends, and now you have to give someone $20 just cause they brought out the food. Sure they did a service, but it isn’t my responsibility to pay them. When do you see restaurants tipping Sysco and US Food Service for providing them with chicken? People don’t give me 20% extra for services I provide and products I sell.

    One thing I really hate, but I do it anyway.

    On a side note, am I the only one that HATES it when a roofer/painter comes and does your roof and vandalizes your lawn with this giant sign advertising their business? When they are done, I give them an invoice for $50/day for renting my property. There are already a zillion signs on their trucks, freaking at least ask me first!
    I’m sure there are others, but I can’t think of them now.

    I tip, and I tip better than average, but boy do I make a stink about it (privately and to my wife, I am more than curiousness to the staff)

    1. Just curious how much do you make at your job?If you can afford a hotel I am guessing more than 9-10 bucks an hour… Do you know how little maids get paid? I know it is not your place to Pay me. I totally agree. Why not try complaining to the hotel mgr. when your room is not cleaned well and see what their answer is….

  32. If you get a bonus at work, is that not like a tip? I’ve worked where employers give unscheduled spot bonuses for excellent work. Of course it is much more than a $5 tip and can often be tech products related to the job, but it essence it’s still a tip. Scheduled bonuses are also like tips. If you reach a certain level of expectations and you get extra money above your salary – tip.

    Those who complain that they hate tipping and that people shouldn’t get tips should also give up their bonuses.

  33. It all depends on how many days your staying and the overall quailty of service that the maid leaves on the first day. Start off with a tip of 4 bucks and if the service goes down meaning towels were left, trash wasnt removed etc, the tip should go down. If the service goes up, meaning extra bars of soap, extra towels, extra coffee packets etc is left, then extra money should be left.

  34. Marc – I’ve never thought of it that way but that’s a good point. Wait staff are paid abysmally (I don’t understand the justification as to why they aren’t paid minimum wage) simply because they are supposed to earn their “tips.”

  35. The same maid may not service your room every night of your stay. If you wait until check-out time to tip for the entire stay, your tip may not go to the right person.

  36. Leaving cash or change in the room is not a clear enough signal, as a hotel maid must be very careful about taking anything from your room. Enclose the tip in a sealed envelope (check the desk drawer for hotel stationary) and mark it “Chambermaid.”

  37. Tip according to service and hotel type: In a luxury hotel, tip about $3-5 each night. For an average hotel, $1-2 per night is fine. If the maid goes above and beyond in service, such as providing extra soaps and shampoos or folding towels in the shape of swans (for example), feel free to leave a dollar or two more.

  38. When I went to Cuba we tipped them with stuff like soap and toys/clothing because for one they can’t accept money (it’s hard for them to sneak it out) and they are very poor.

  39. It depends on the hotel- in some places they don’t come back and clean every day so why leave a tip! if all they did was throw the comforter back in the bed during your stay, I think you’re ok leaving a tip at the end rather than every day.

  40. You’re supposed to tip your hotel maid every day, but be careful because some hotels add a “housekeeping” or similar charge to your bill of $2-3 a day, which is their way of forcing you to tip the maids. This happened to me when I went to the New york because it ends up being part of your bill and you have to pay tax on it.

  41. I throw down $3 for each morning I request housekeeping service. Sometimes I just put up the Do Not Disturb sign if I don’t require anything.

  42. I’m the cheapest person you’ll ever meet and I’m also a greedy bastard.

    I don’t tip anyone, for anything at any time… not even in restaurants.

    1. Jeez, post your picture so I will know to tell the waiter to spit in your food, the housekeeper to *piss on your sheets, and the sky cap to lose your luggage!!!!

  43. I usually leave $1-2 per day, though they usually only have to clean it once per stay since I leave the “DO NOT DISTURB” sign on the door 24/7.

    I read that was “typical” somewhere and have just been sticking to it ever since.

  44. This is the first that I am hearing that you tip maids. I guess now I will be leaving $3 – $5 per night. What a jackass I feel like right now. To think, when I was leaving they were talking shit about me behind my back. DOH! Won’t make that mistake again.

  45. “DO NOT DISTURB” and then 5-10 on the final day depending on the mess. Generally it is not that bad though…

  46. I’m a sucker when it comes to tipping. I always like to give like 25% or more for meals. For hotels I actually have rarely tipped because I simply didn’t know about it.

    I guess now that I know, I will start. 🙂

  47. I leave $3 a day at the end of the stay. A lot of people say to tip per day because the maids change, but I figure they can sort it out.

    I once tipped a maid in France rather nicely mid-stay, and she later stole $125 I had stashed in a drawer. She’d gone through all of the rooms and done that.

    Another time I left like $15 for a long stay and my girlfriend later handed me the money saying I’d mistakenly left it behind. Ack!

  48. I reckon $40 is a good tip. $50 if you want them to take real good care of you, and $200 if you want them to stay the night. 🙂

  49. I don’t think i’ve ever tipped a maid at a hotel. Why should I? Aren’t they getting paid a normal hourly wage by the hotel? With the cost of hotels, I’m not going to be throwing in any extra cash.

    As far as waitresses, I usually tip 20% but I get tired of hearing all the waiters/waitresses complain about low wages. When I was in college they were the highest paid people I knew. While I was putzing around as a cook in a restaurant, they were raking in cash. In most restaurants I’d rather if they did it fuddruckers style and just called you when your food was ready and allowed you to get your own refills. Most of these people don’t deserve squat.

  50. $3-$5 bucks and escalate each day if service is good. If they half-ass it I dont bother leaving anything the next day. I always tip a lot more at the casinos if I’m winning.

    Biggest tip I have left for a maid has been $100. (strippers are a different story : )

  51. To me it depends on what I had in the hotel room when I checked in. Than I compare to what the maid does and if the maid adds or does anything above and beyond. I usually leave $10, sometimes $5. But I am always mindful to those who are in the service industry cause I was there once. The hours and average worker wage is squat and considering what we have to do and “Clean Up” is not worth the pay sometimes. And I would at times go out and above my usually duties knowing the customers are due some respect and need some extra comforts(No Puns intended PLZ)

  52. Are maids like waiters in that they can double their salary through tips?
    My sister was a waiter during her gap year and she got so much in tips!
    I’ve never tipped a maid before but might start.
    I definitely won’t leave £20 or so lying on my bed from now on!

  53. I always tip the maid well when I’m at a hotel. I don’t think some people realize that a lot of them actually make crap money. I’m not saying that people should leave $50 a day, but $2? What the hell? Holy cheap. Somewhere between $5-8 would be good.

  54. Whoa – are you saying I shouldn’t have left that open suitcase of 20s on the hotel bed ?

  55. Always leave a $3-5 dollar tip, just seems right. If they do a great job and I am spending a few days sometimes I through a $10 for them.

  56. Damn, I’m glad I read this thread.

    I had NO IDEA tipping chambermaids was a social norm. Now I know to tip. I’ll probably tip $3-5 as everyone else has kind of concluded to, or just $1-2 if they do a lousy job.

    I stayed at a nice hoel a few months ago and the maid was really good – she took all of our bathroom stuff, put them on a sheet, and lined them up in order of decscending size. I absolutely loved that!

    I don’t mind tipping at all, and am usually a generous tipper – but I’d much rather tip a chambermaid than a waitress since I believe the former is a much more difficult job (lonely, have to clean up bathrooms, and much less pay).

    Heh.. just really surprised tipping them was the norm.. never even came across my mind!

  57. I started googling “chambermaid tipping” because I’m really curious about this now, and saw this commend from an actual chambermaid which is helpful:

    “As a housekeeper at a hotel, I know that we had many people who would stay for a week or so at our hotel and they never tipped. This frustrates us because there is a lot that we do to keep the room the way it is. So tips are always welcomed–even if they are just the spare change in your pockets.

    Also, don’t tip when you arrive. Sleep first, then tip. And if you are staying an extended stay, chances are about 99% that you wont have the same maid as you did the first day. So make sure your tip goes next to their housekeeping card (if there is one). And make sure it is conspicuous.

    At my hotel, we are not allowed to touch any money unless it is either on top of the pillow or on top of the housekeeping card. If you are staying and extended stay and like your housekeeper, you may be able to go to the Front Desk and request that housekeeper perform the housekeeping duties for the duration of your stay. Although this may work, be advised that there are certain days when housemaids don’t work so as to prevent overtime. So it may not work in all situations–but it’s worth a try!

    And finally–if you have a suite with a jacuzzi, whirlpool, or some other sort of large, aquatic leisure device in it, be sure to tip accordingly. If you use it, maids spend a lot of time disinfecting and cleaning it. So take that into mind when you tip. “

  58. I usually tip a ten. I know some people go by a state by state percentage. Similar to waiters in a restaurant.

  59. Sometimes I’ve tipped at the end of the stay, depending on the days of the week or how the maid card was written. Sometimes they’ve even said their schedule on it, which is helpful.

    I also like my bar philosophy, tip high at the front end of a stay/binge. Then you get better service from them.

    Lately, I put the do not disturb sign on the door and I don’t get housekeeping every day because I don’t want anyone seeing or messing with my tech gear. I don’t clean my bedroom everyday at home so I don’t need it on the road either.

    One time I locked myself out of a room at a nice hotel, asked a housekeeper to let me in. She just let me in, no checking or qualification. Good for me at the moment but also scared me that it would be real too easy to be a smiling thief.

  60. Yeah its nice that people leave tips for maids lots of them have to clean there home after cleaning up after people all day great post shoe!

  61. Like Jonathan said, I’m a sucker when it comes to tipping. House keeping at hotels are under paid, yet they do a ton of work. So I try and leave them a $20 or so.

    Remember, they are cleaning your bathroom where you leave your toothbrush;)

  62. I don’t tip maids even though I feel the most compassionate for them and their plight (usually undoc’d immigrants). I try not to tip much anymore. Guess I’m jaded about life–it’s up to each one of us to improve our lives rather than depend on others.

    1. In “today’s” economy it is not always easy to “improve oneself”….. You may be surprised of the background of some of the maids. Not all of us are immigrants……

  63. If I have excess gifts from expos, I keep them on the bed with a note as a gift (usually written back of biz card). I have lighter baggage and some publicity… 🙂

  64. I must be a bad girl then, because the last time I was in New Orleans I tipped the maid with a voodoo curse. The reason, the maid kept stealing a piece of gum from a pack I left laying on the night stand in the room every day for a week.
    Needless to say by the end of a week I wasn’t too happy with her so I went and had a visit with Marie Laveau at Saint Louis Cemetery #1. Its a New Orleans thing, you would understand if you lived there… I think things worked out just fine. I went home happy anyway.

  65. Ha wow I’d you found out the hard way shoe!? Haha but at any rate I guess I never thought about tipping the maid. Growing up I always was told to hide my money so that they didn’t feel I was in fact tipping them or leavin them money!

  66. I can’t believe that this post sparked so much conversation! I always tip alot in restaurants especially for good service, but haven’t followed the same course in hotels (well 20% or more would be a really big tip!!).

  67. It depends on the hotel, if it’s a 5 star and the maid was good, I will leave about $3 for each day of my stay, if it’s a lower quality hotel, then anywhere from $2-$5 total is fine!

  68. I’m going to be honest, I’ve never tipped a maid – I didn’t even think about it! I do tip others very well — I’ll keep that in mind I suppose?

  69. I worked for tips for like 7 years while i was going to school so i always tip more than i should. my wife thinks i’m crazy but if you have worked for tips you know the difference from getting two bucks and getting 5 or more. that extra couple bucks really adds up.
    man am i glad i don’t work for tips anymore so many cheap people in utah

  70. I agree $5 is the standard.. well it also depends on how you have liked the services of that certain person

  71. I would say $2-$5…I’d like to say depending on how good of a job that they do- but how do you know? You tip them before they clean. If that person did a really good job, you could tip more the next day…but it may be a different maid. I’d say $3 a day is a good number.

  72. @ Rankish Hardish, is it not a bit of a hassle carting jars around, and have you ever had all the jars nicked?

  73. Wow! I cannot believe how many replies! I read all though! A lot of reading, came across some humor, most tip amounts were $2-3 or more commonly $5.

  74. $2 – $5 depending on the service and how much of a mess I have left the night before. Checkout day usually a $10 if I the service is pretty good.

  75. It depends on the size of the hotel. On big hotel small tips and in small hotels big tips.

  76. Honestly, I’ve never tipped a hotel maid as I always regarded their service as part of what I already paid for for the accomodation. Hmmm, I now kinda feel bad about it. Well I’ll start tipping them off. 😉

  77. I tip anywhere from 2-5 if it’s only a few of us staying.

    One time we made a huge mess in a suite (lots of people), and we left $25

  78. Hey, just noticed i am in the top commentator’s list.. Wooho…
    but plz correct the anchor text – dont include the comment number. 😉

  79. YEAH!! You’re most definitely the GREATEST blogger in the world man!! Giving the maid 40 buck$ like that! Awesome, even if it’s not intentional. A hundred kowtow to you!!!!

  80. I’m w/marc. I only tip if I do something insane to the room (a night of food poisoning).

  81. I live in Australia and we just don’t tip anyone. When I was in the US we were constantly handing over money for this and that. For the hotel maid we used to leave $2 a day….we had no idea what was the standard rate so just hoped we did the right thing.

  82. Given that cleaners tend to be low paid and do a hard job, it’s nice to leave them a tip. For many of us a few dollars isn’t much money but can make a huge difference to someone who is struggling to get by.

  83. I think about it mathematically, not by the crappiness of their job. Say they do 50 rooms in 8 hours. They make minimum wage, so like 50 bucks wages. $3 per room is $150, so they make $200 in 8 hours, which is like $48,000 per year. Not too bad. So, what I’m saying is that $3 or $4 is sufficient, but just make sure you tip each day.

    1. Just so you know, housekeepers do not do 50 rooms per day. You make it seem like they are so easy and take less than 10 minutes for each room. Have you ever cleaned someones bathroom–> toilet, shower, shampoo and conditioner sloshed down the side of the walls, etc and trying to vacuum the floor and clean the tables and nightstands while avoiding as much of your personal belongings as possible…gggrrrr. People erk me! People leave behind their messes and their childrens messes and make a much bigger mess when they know THEY don’t have to clean it up! Mathematically? u had better get your facts right before you try to calculate anything else.Housekeepers –> even at nicer hotels like the Hilton and marriott, which I have worked at both make an average of $15 dollars a day on tips and $60 in wages!! 3 out of 20 rooms on average leave tips.

  84. The least advantaged people get the crappiest jobs… I try to think what it would be like to do that job myself for $7 an hour or whatever they’re getting paid, even $15? I wouldn’t do it for $50! It’s hard, disgusting, physical work. Leaving $5 a day is half of what I paid for one beer the night before… and each day I tip, afterward the room always is sparkling.

  85. I think it depends on the hotel, size of the room and if you made any special requests like extra towels or a tooth brush or something. Generally speaking though, $3-$5 is cool.

  86. As a Hotel Manager, I first have to say Thank You for blogging about this. Housekeepers are some of the hardest working people in the hotel and almost always the most underpaid. Most make $7.00-$8.00 an hour and rely on tips left by guests. It is best to tip every day because as you mentioned, the same person may not be cleaning the room every day.

    My housekeepers are told not to pick up any money unless it is on the bed or on the desk. Most times their tips are left beside the weather cards on the desks, that way they know for sure that it was meant for them. Even if there is no weather card, there is usually some type of card left in the room that identifies the housekeeper so I would leave it there.

  87. Dena if “housekeepers are some of the hardest working people in the hotel” why doesn’t the hotel value their employees and compensate them accordingly? Relying on members of the public, who may or may not remember to tip them, to boost their wage packet seems pretty shoddy.

  88. As a longtime expat in Japan, tipping just rubs me the wrong way. It’s so nice not to have to tip — and still get great service.

    I wouldn’t feel bad about tipping maids, but the arrogant sense of entitlement that waiters and bellboys have about it really annoys me.

    And of course those deadbeats are not declaring it on their tax returns.

  89. @Dena- Thanks for the insight! I knew they didn’t make much- but you would think they would make at least $10/hr. It must be a pretty disgusting job…

  90. If I am staying a few nights I will first see how well they do and then decide. Its like anything we choose to get service for what we get. If its just for the night, well depending of where I stay.

  91. Look at all you suckers being guilted into this ‘tipping meme’. The tip you should leave should be in writing on the little survey card they leave you. You know, the one asking about how they can improve.

    Tell them they can start by paying their cleaning staff above industry standards and that they should publicize that they pay their cleaning staff more than comparable hotels in their marketing.

    Unions have been totally neutered in this country. Let service industries know that pay rates of the lowest paid employees are important to retaining you as a paying customer.

    You people are totally unaware of the damage you are doing to service workers. And unfortunately many service workers are unaware of it as well. When you tip, you are financing the degradation of working conditions, wages and benefits of service staff.

    A decent tip today is 20-25%. Twenty five years ago it was 10%. Before that it was 5%. Before that… it was a rare thing and service workers had a guaranteed paycheck and a living wage. An employer exploits employees by pressuring customers into tipping their staff. They are extricating themselves from responsibilities as an employer. This is happening in an ever increasing number of industries in the US for the purpose of reducing labor costs.

    Just remember when a hotel or restaurant or cruise ship or airport is giving you instructions on tipping staff that you are being SOLD an exploitative idea under the guise of generosity. They are marketing the idea to you that you are some kind of unrefined troglodyte if you are not a big tipper.

    I realize that a lot of jobs like waitstaff are now entirely dependent on tips, so we have to do it. However, if you really care about that person serving you. Ask them what their hourly wage is. Then ask for a comment card to tell their employer you would rather see them paid a higher hourly wage rather than leaving an overly large gratuity.

    All a big tip does is make you feel good about yourself. You are de-leveraging that service worker’s value to their employer. Making them that much more expendable and usually little to no benefits from their employer and artificially low benefits paid into to FICA for OASDI disability, Medicare, unemployment, etc. on their behalf.

    So I really wish some of the generous tippers in this thread who seem to want to help, would put their money where their mouth is. Rethink your position on tipping and put these service industries on notice about the state of service workers wages.

    1. Maid Union in this day and age….fat chance…. I used to work at a union job……

      We should contact our legislators but you know how high a priority it will be nowadays……

  92. Marc,

    That is all good in theory, but at the end of the day, the odds of your not tipping will not change anything. Even if 25% of all normal chambermaid tippers stuck together to agree not to tip anymore, do you really think that would make enough of a difference to bring down bureaucratic change in the industry and increase wages?

    Personally I think all it would do is leave the hardworking maids without those tips. It takes a lot to initiate change, and I understand that if you don’t try, nothing will happen, but again, the odds of having some normal tippers suddenly decide to stop will most likely never have any real effect on their wages. After all, tips aren’t declared in their income tax reports (even though they’re supposed to be), which is what lawmakers refer to when stating their cases of wage.

    In the end, it’s really a personal moral issue, I’d surmise. Some people feel really uncomfortable giving tips and I understand that, but as some chambermaids have commented, it’s not all about the money, but the effort. Whether it’s $.50 or $5, it’s the idea that counts, and makes their job a lighter brighter.

    1. I agree Tyler. I get he idea I am doing something wrong if I do not receive a tip but I guess it is a common ideal. People aren’t going to part with their “hard earned” money unless asked to do so. Moral issue or not.

    2. I am assuming you work at a hotel based on your comments….when I leave a tip, do I assume it’s for just ONE maid or is the tip divided between all the maids that have cleaned the room during my stay?

      1. Hotel Housekeeping divisions differ from property to property in terms of whether they work individually or in teams. I manage two hotel properties, 41 and 45 rooms respectively, and my housekeepers work individually. Since each housekeeper will have at least two days off during the week, if you stay more than two nights you will likely have a different housekeeper cleaning your room each day. Occupancy also accounts for having the same housekeeper.

        If I can make one suggestion it would be to leave a tip for your housekeeper EVERY DAY. It doesn’t have to be much ($3 or $4), but housekeepers earn the lowest wages in the industry and work the hardest.

        Additionally, if you don’t have housekeepers, you don’t have a hotel business. If nothing else, a few bucks from 10 or 15 rooms helps these grossly underpaid employees more than you know.

  93. Tyler,

    I realize we are not going to stop tipping cold turkey. As I stated, some professions have become entirely dependent upon tipping for their earnings. Obviously that won’t change overnight. That said, here is what you can do.

    Do not to leave outsize tips. As this pressures other customers to do like wise. As gratuity rates rise, employer responsibilities decline. Fill out that comment card. Let companies know about your dissatisfaction that gratuities are out of hand. Let hotels know, that you want higher hourly wages for staff as a paying customer. And that you want them to publicize just how much more they pay over their competitors. Believe me people will pay more for a room if they know the cleaners are making a dollar more an hour. This needs to made an issue in the competitive market place.

    The idea of tipping pits customers against workers while the employer steers clear and shirks responsibility. Customers punish workers for low quality service which often is directly attributable to the employer. Workers blame customers for their perennially low incomes. The employer straddles the middle ground exploiting both sides. And yes it is all good in theory. In fact it, it’s game theory. Two sides played against each other by the middle. Classic concept.

    At this point I just want to bring awareness more than anything else, because most people don’t see the ramifications. I thank Shoemoney for my chance to opine on the topic. Not sure if he appreciates it or not. By the way Tyler, it would be nice if you blogged on this topic. I’m not an activist or anything, I’m more into the economics of it than anything else. You have to understand how innovation in markets is not always a good thing. It leads to unbalanced and sometimes destructive exploitation. As evidenced by what’s happened in credit markets and the environment.

    I realize that an extra $5 can make a chambermaid’s day lighter and brighter, but just realize that every time you do it, you are also letting that employer off the hook in paying wages and also other contributions for which we tax payers must eventually foot the bill. The nice thing about tips is that they are so difficult to account for and that they are completely optional and subjective. They are still the best way employers have to outsource the distasteful responsibility of actually paying their own employees.

  94. Marc,

    I can agree with you that tips have gotten out of hand in the fact of how high they have gotten. I’m usually a fairly generous tipper, but I don’t like the fact that 20% is starting to become the standard for restaurants instead of the previous 15%.

    I don’t care so much about how much you tip – I can totally understand your point of letting the industry push their employees costs onto the consumer – for me it’s really more about the thought, and to show that you appreciated their hard work and service.

    I really hate how more and more places are including the tip fee in their services… and charging it at 20-25% – that is simply rediculous, and should really almost be illegal. That’s a form of price-gouging is it not? It’s 20-25% more than these places made before.

    I really hate mandatory service/tipping fees.

    Anyhow, I agree that the rate of increase of tipping has certainly got out of hand. 15% is already a generous tip, and even though I sometimes tip 20% or more, I do so because it is my prerogative to do so – not because it is the new social norm. When workers start to expect a 20% tip, you know things are going wrong somewhere.

    I like to tip based on service. I had a waitress who was not busy at all (the restaurant only had a few diners), and I was waiting for her a very long time. I could see her just chatting away with another waitress for a very long time, near the cashier. I could tell it was a casual conversation as they were laughing, etc. Anyhow, I made the tip accordingly, probably like 8-10%. I probably shouldn’t have tipped at all, but…

    But if I get a good waitress who comes along often, is friendly, etc. then she’ll get my standard 15%. If she goes above and beyond, she’ll get a 20% tip from me.

    I often thought ot myself that waitresses must make bank on tips alone. If they average 5 tables an hour at an average party size of 4, whose average total bill comes to $120, at a 15% tip rate that comes to $90 an hour. Say 7 hours of waiting tables, that would equate to $630 a day just on tips.

    Hmm.. that can’t make sense though.. average party probably stays longer than an hour because of waiting for the food, etc. And, let’s lower the average table count from 5 to 4. So, let’s be conservative and say 4 tables every 2 hours, which is very conservative indeed. That would still work out to
    $36/hour on tips, at a 7-hour day $252. This is on tips alone.. crazy.

    You know what a good job is for receiving tips? Being a casino dealer at high stakes tables… better yet being a dealer called in for private high stakes games.

  95. Tyler,

    Nice little thread we’ve got going here. Haha. A couple of points I’d like to make, but I’ll preface it by saying every place is different, especially resorts and casinos. That said, most waitstaff don’t just work a seven hour shift. They work lunch or they work dinner. These are time constrained periods of when they actually have tables. Waiters work stations (groups of tables). They generally don’t make any tips until their station opens up. Then they stop earning tips when their station closes. Then they have to tip-out to kitchen staff which can be a significant percentage. Most waitstaff will not have sustained tables throughout a shift. When they are not on station, waitstaff will often be doing various mundane tasks such as polishing silverware, folding serviettes or cleaning their stations for $2.13 an hour or whatever their state minimum is, or waiting around to be allowed to clock in.

    I just Googled the federal minimum wage for these types of jobs and it hasn’t changed from when I got my raise back in 1990 from $2.11/hour to $2.13/hour. Yes that was the actual increase. Here’s a US Department of Labor link.


    That’s a disgrace that federal minimum has not increased since 1990. No increase in 18 years. Some states and municipalities have higher minimums but all are still below minimum wage with tax contributions for gross wages not required to be higher than minimum wage. That means if you work all your life for tips, you will have the Social Security contributions of a minimum wage worker who was most likely clocking part time hours “officially”.

    I agree that some people like those dealers can make some really good money, but that is really rare. Those kind of jobs only exist in a few places, yet these across the board tipping standards put most of these workers below the poverty line with families or else living with parents or relatives.

    I realize its hard for us to do anything individually about this. Just make the people around you aware and make a positive difference when your awareness coincides with opportunity. That’s how large scale change happens over time.

    Just to contrast, in Europe the situation is not nearly as dire although in recent years they have begun following the American model due to the influence of American tourists with employers willing to exploit it. Luckily for low wage earners in Europe, they generally have better protection than American workers.

  96. As an Aussie, I’m not used to tipping. Not that I think it shouldn’t happen. If the service warrants it, then sure. But there’s noone asserting thou must tip here in Oz, and when I go abroad (rarely these days), I often forget to tip anyway.

    Anyone here from Oz who regularly tips ??

  97. @jumbocasher: I don’t think he was referring ot the maid…

  98. i usually leave around 20 dollars in the states at the end of my stay. I personally think the tipping culture in the US is crazy. My thinking is, you pay to stay at there hotels. Your already paying for the service. You shouldn’t have to pay them to do there job well. The only reason i leave the tip is i’m quite messy, and i’m sure the amount of cleaning required in my room is beyond that of thier job description. W00t! Found something to make my first post about.

    1. The rooms I clean are generally not very messy. Thank you guys… but it takes a faster maid 20 minutes to do the minimum tasks well. Lets do some math here… 3 rooms a hour at $9 an hour gee that’s $3 bucks a room. Think about it… Save some of your bellboy/waitress money for the maid maybe? or don’t give anyone any?

  99. One my good friend leaves $ 30. He said it helps him to earn more money. -) By the way, he really earns a lot. -))

  100. Just a few bucks for me. Probably should tip every day except the last so they don’t do anything nasty to your toothbrush.

  101. @ cheap used cars : If I owned a hotel of course I would. A better paid workforce is a happy workforce, at least happier if they are being paid a living wage.

    @ Marc: $2.13! That is absolutely shocking. I thought the idea of tips was to offer something extra if you were served very well, not to supplant the wage that an employer should be paying. Very eye opening.

  102. I usually tip at the end of my stay however, I did not tip this time at the Fairmont in San Jose cause the effing maid stole my Google Dance 08 shirt!

    It was on the chair in my room when I left for some sessions and than gone when I returned. I ripped my room apart and it hasn’t been seen according to the head maid…of course.

  103. I guess its also got to do with how expensive the room is and how much you can afford to give.

  104. Tipping? What is it? A new kind of sport?

    Honestly, I’m a young guy, who’s visited almost 20 countries and has never tipped an hotel maid…only once (My gf threw some hair color on the floor of our room so I left $15 on the bed…it was a mess).

    It’s responsibility of the employer to pay his employees and not of the customers. PERIOD.
    In the hotel, only the guy who brings my bags will get something ($2/$4).
    Tipping the maid? If she is gonna provide any “special” massage maybe…

    If it’s keeping this pace, the waitress will receive no wage in the future but they could only hope on the customer willingness. Of course, why an employer should give a decent salary if he knows his employee is getting 15%-20% on the bills (and for what I know in the restaurants in the States you are forced to leave the tip).

    Leaving tip in a luxury hotel ($300+/night)…ARE YOU NUTS?

    I’ve never had left a tip and as a result nobody has ever stolen something from me.

    1. What did the guy who brings your luggage up do that was any more worth a tip than the maid who spends alot more time and effort(?) cleaning your room?

      If you ask the maid she may give you your special massage but it will cost WAY more than you would be willing to pay from the sounds of it. Why are guests so ungrateful?

  105. $5 per night if I’m staying one or two nights. $3 per night if it’s longer than that.

  106. This past July my mother and I stayed at the hard rock hotel in universal. We’ve never leaved tips before but this time we had the same maid the last two days. The first day we had to ask the front desk to get the maid in our room so on the second day of having her, the last day, we wrote on a piece of paper ‘TIP=’ then we put a penny right by it. lol. Thankfully we only had her the last two days of our six day trip.

  107. Well in a restraurant its supposed to be ten to fifteen percent of the bill and so I guess the same percentage of your daily rent ought to be more than fair for tipping the maid.

    1. Do you tip the bellboy and the waitress because you see them in person and skip the invisible little bed maker……?

  108. I actually never knew you were supposed to tip your maids until I read this post then googled it. I usually never even let the maids into my room though since I have had a few bad experiences at even 5 star hotels with stuff getting stolen and of course they will never fess up to it.

  109. […] Hotel Housekeepers 25 08 2008 Conversations at Shoemoney and FMF about tipping Hotel room attendants.  As an aside, Shoemoney’s readers seem to be […]

  110. Unless I’m staying more than a few days which is unusual since most of my stays are on business trips I use the DND sign. Who needs their bed made every day when I’m just going to tear it apart when I go to sleep anyway and since there are usual several towels in the room I don’t need fresh ones. When I leave I’ll leave a nice tip.

    Now, if I’m on vacation and have the family along and need new towels, shampoo, etc. every day, then I’ll leave a daily tip.

    1. Great. Does the maid know you don’t want your bed made? We love shortcuts also but feel required to change the linens everyday unless told its ok not to. Use the “green” card as instructed. We are not mind readers…

  111. Why on earth would you tip your maid? Since when do you have to pay extra to have your room look clean?

    What’s next, we tip the guy at the front desk for being so kind to check you in?

  112. To be honest I have never even thought of tipping them its their job. You want tips work at a restaurant.

  113. $5 is fine , more if they do a great job .. I wouldn’t mind leaving $0 if I wasn’t satisfied with the service.

  114. I didnt think you had to tip them even though they do deserve it. I never thought about it that way. Maybe next time if everything goes smoothly.

  115. […] the SES San Jose Conference, I learned how to tip a maid. […]

    Spice Paradise brings you the truly outstanding and varied cuisines of southern & northern states of india under one roof. The cuisines of this Indian states present you with a gastronomical oasis a delicious legacy from a melting pot of diverse historic, european influences of the portugese, french, dutch and the british.

    Spice Paradise is a 80 seater Indian restaurant based in norwich. At Spice Paradise you will enjoy traditional Indian Cuisine served within a relaxed environment that will definitely exceed your expectations.

    5:30 pm – 11:30 pm
    41 Magdalen Street, Norwich NR3 1 LQ

    Tel : 01603 666601 / 664152
    07738021594 / 07869212935
    E-mail : norwichspiceparadise@yahoo.com
    Website : http://www.norwichspiceparadise.com/

    Restaurants, Indian restaurants, Indian restaurants in Norway, Indian dining, Indian food, Indian takeaway norwich, Spice paradise, spice paradise norwich,
    hotels in India, hotels India, luxury hotels in India, 5 star hotels in India, 5 star hotels in Norway, Indian hotels, british hotels India, Spice Paradise, Indian Cuisine, Indian Food, Food from India, Food, Cuisine, Norway, Food, Indian Spices, Paradise

  117. I think all depends upon the quality of service, nature of job and also freqency of your visits to that place. But as a tradition, anything arround $3-4 will be quite ok.

  118. Tip or not as you please. If you do, base it on your income or experience of service or percentage of bill, or whatever. Regardless, don’t conform to or feel guilty about opinions generated by strangers unaware of who you are or your location or individual situation. That pointed out, traditionally in cases where your cup runneth over, it’s nice to share!

  119. I used to do this kind of work, in a resort in the mountains. It is hard work, and the pay is usually low. When I got a tip, I was elated. Now, when I stay in a motel, I always tip,. $5.00 a day,cause I remember how great I felt, when I got one. I have had maids come out to the car and thank me, and that made MY day, as I knew they meant it. A little kindness goes a long way.

  120. Just to defend the tipping system a bit, I went to the Soviet Union before the wall came down and the service was so bad my dad and I started laughing. It was not just what the waiter said but the attitude was so impatient and hostile it was laughable. I guess part of it was probably he could not get fired, but we still need to remember the benefits of capitalism, not just the bad parts. I went to Berkeley so was mired in the joys of socialism, but that trip to the USSR made me love capitalism ever since.

    I leave $5 no matter the cost of hotel and more if it has a kitchen. It makes the cleaners VERY happy, I can tell. I have been in hotels with broken glass and hair in the bathroom, so it IS possible to get some really bad cleaning.

  121. The maids do the toughest job in the hotel, work the hardest, have the worst hours, and make low wages. Tipping the maid goes a long way. She (it’s almost always a woman) is more likely to do a good job, bring you extra towels and/or attend to other requests if you leave a tip, and a little extra money makes a significant useful addition to her wages. It is indeed unfortunate that employers rely on customers to subsidize their employees’ wages, but since that’s the way it is, I tip the maid. Not tipping to prove a point doesn’t.

    I tip every time the maid cleans the room during my stay, and also on checkout day. However I usually leave the DND on the door for most or all of my stay. I tip $3-5 per cleaning and at checkout for a motel, $5-10 for a nicer hotel, and $10-15 for a suite hotel room with a kitchen or a spa. In addition, I generally clean for the maid! I don’t leave things strewn about the room and I bag the trash and gather the empties 😉

    I have sometimes been personally thanked by the maids when they see me after having cleaned my room and received my tip. On a few occasions they’ve left little thank you notes.

    FWIW, it kills me that in casino land, there are people who will tip the dealers dozens of dollars over the course of the night (presumably in appreciation for assisting them in losing their money to the house), yet they can’t leave a measly ten spot for the maid who cleans up the puke in the bathroom, fills a garbage bag with trash and pours the backwash out of the empties before filling another bag with them, and somehow manages to remove the big stain they made on the rug without reporting the damage to management. Even if you aren’t gonna tip, don’t leave the room in shambles!

  122. Perhaps I mostly see your point with part of the choices, I have to argue with your first choice of a toy. I believe it maybe should have been last on the list.

  123. I really liked this site shown it has given me a bit of inspiration to have success for some reason, so thank you.

  124. Boy do I agree you should NOT tip maids else their employers will leave the responsibility of pay to the kindness of strangers.

    The other thing is, having worked for years as a makeup artist providing hours of free highly personalized service with no tip expected (even if the person had the flu or boils on their face) I really do not see why we need to tip a hotel housekeeper. We are paying more per night than we paid for the last pair of shoes we bought and maybe even Enzo Angelinis! I don’t understand why when everyone else in every customer service industry must be NICE and mostly not expect a tip, maids by practice won’t smile at you, treat you like you’re in the way if you’re in your own room, are notoriously difficult to communicate with, and often snub guests with unkind gestures concerning their belongings, amentities, and basic cleanliness, even when you are extremely pleasant, considerate, and neat! There is something wrong here.

  125. I think I should offer some insight considering that I’ve worked at a hotel for 6 years. And yes as a maid:) Although tipping is not required, it is nice to feel appreciated by the people who have stayed (especially when they mess up the room really bad for a few days to a whole week!) I worked at a nice hotel and it wasn’t a five star but it was very nice and very clean. Sometimes we would be short handed and have 20 rooms a day! That would take us until 6pm sometimes. During the summers we would have teenage kids come and quit and most of the time during their shift. The work is really hard and it’s like seeing the same room you’ve just clean get trashed over and over again…. On a good day I would make 8 dollars. And most days I wouldn’t make anything at all. And It’s not because of my personality or cleaning skills because i’ve won awards on cleanliness. So when I hear people saying that they always tip the maid, it’s kind of hard for me to believe. Now (thank god) I don’t work at a hotel anymore. But if I could leave here with some advice it would be: YES you should tip the maid (at least a dollar).

  126. Tipping is a personal choice, given in appreciation. I work at a hotel where it is rare to get tips so when we do it makes our day. I don’t know about other places or other people’s ethics, but I for one do not dig through guests belongings or do anything to their personal property in the room. I do not expect tips for cleaning a room, but appreciate them when a horrendous mess is left behind. I have had rooms take hours to clean after some guest decided to destroy their room, or when someone’s pet has an accident. We see the rude side of people too–how hard is it to use a garbage can or flush a toilet? Yes, you are paying to use the room, not destroy it. I think some people actually make a mess on purpose to justify what they paid for the room. Most of us at the hotel I work at will only earn a small fraction of what you paid to make the room look it’s best for you and keep it that way throughout your stay. I have guests complain to me about the cost. Sorry, I don’t set the price–I just make sure it looks good for you! Most housekeepers I know do not expect tips, but we sure do appreciate them when we do get them. I leave something when I stay at hotels, because I know how hard the job can be!

  127. […] What to tip – How much should you tip your hotel maid / cab ? […]

  128. […] See, with the hanger on your door, housekeeping will skip your room, then you don’t have to tip them daily. Wait, you don’t tip them when they clean your room? I thought I was cheap. Tip the housekeeping staff (how much?). […]

Comments are closed.